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Előadó
A kognitív nyelvészet az utóbbi negyedszázad igencsak eseménydús tudományterülete. Amióta a nyelvet nem az emberi megismerőrendszertől elszigetelve, hanem azzal való szoros összefüggésében vizsgáljuk, állandóan újabb és újabb, korábban meg sem fogalmazott kérdések merülnek fel, és az ezekre adott különféle, egymással versengő vagy egymást kiegészítő válaszok folyamatosan újabb titkait tárják fel az emberi nyelvnek.
Cognitive linguistics studies languages in relation to the human cognitive system. The lecture initially deals with the metaphorical nature of language including the issues of perceptual and linguistic categorisation then goes on to describe the structure of the world of meaning. This describes the increasingly complex hierarchy of category types and shows the kind of knowledge required for something to be listed under a given category. The simplest ones are the personal names where there is no categorisation. From here various category types branch out, those that can be defined by sight alone, such as animals, people, parts of the body, then plants and parts of plants and finally the artefacts and their parts. This branch is characterised by metaphorical extension, which extends from the more known to less known, from the less complex to the more complex on a given level. The names of the other branches cannot be defined simply by looking at them but one has to know somehow that they belong to that category. The simplest ones here are the relationship names, then the function and institution names and finally the purely linguistic abstract names. This branch is not characterised by metaphoric nature, rather by blending, i.e. structural metaphor as Lakoff and Johnson called it. The lecture describes only the possibility of building such a structure and notes that with its more developed form we can understand a number of linguistic phenomena better than with the general explanations given in today's scientific literature.
A marihuána hatóanyaga, a kannabisz, közvetve lerontja az agyi hullámtevékenységet és a tanulási képességet. Megzavarja a szelektív figyelem és a fókuszáltság, valamint a kielégültség-érzés agyi mechanizmusait, s ennek nyomán szorongás, alulmotiváltság és céltalanság léphet fel. Az agy belső kannabinoid rendszerének befolyásolása új utat nyithat számos pszichiátriai betegség, valamint a kemény drog- és alkoholfüggés gyógyításában.
One of the most important elements of high-level nervous system functioning is the processing, interpretation and storing of stimuli from both the external and our own internal worlds. The hippocampus plays a key role in this process. Memory is the result of the precise synchronization of stimulating and impeding neurons. Understanding psychoactive substances has long been a concern of science, yet the working of one of the most popular drugs, marijuana, has only recently begun to become apparent. Contrary to earlier views, marijuana connects to its own receptor in the nerve cell. This receptor plays a key role in the functioning of memory. It is well known that the use of marijuana affects memory, however, it also plays a role in adjusting the optimal levels of anxiety and relaxation. With precise understanding, a road may open to the development of more effective anti-anxiety medication with fewer side effects. It is now also clear that the marijuana receptor is the common path to all manner of drug addictions including alcohol and hard drugs. Thus the study of the nervous system in relation to marijuana will play an important role the treatment of addiction.
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Előadó
Az előadás egy esettanulmányt mutat be, mely a Kárpát-medencét, ezen belül a mai Magyarország területét érintő Kr. e. 4-3. századi kelta népmozgalmakat vizsgálja, s ezen keresztül szemlélteti a történettudomány és a régészet viszonyát, illetve kapcsolatrendszerét.
The legendary event recounted by the historian Livius - Vae Victis - dramatising the attack of the Gauls in Rome demonstrates well the image of the ancient Romans had of the Celts: ruthless barbarians driven by the desire to rob and steal. However, modern archaeology has shown that the Celtic Migration cannot be explained by a lust for treasure. In 450-400 B.C. in certain parts of the Celtic world (e.g. in Champagne) overpopulation and a later cessation of the usage of cemeteries point towards a migration of the population. The expansion of the Celts can primarily be viewed as a peaceful colonisation. The findings at Monte Bibele show the symbiosis of the local Etruscan population with the Celts. In Northern Serbia we can observe the assimilation of local Illyrians with immigrant Celts, this is repeated on the Great Hungarian Plain where Scythian objects were found alongside Celtic ones (e.g. at Sajópetri). The evidence of ethnic and cultural integration and the development of an Eastern Celtic cultural coinage shows a number of regional characteristics and we can conclude that by 300-200 B.C the Carpathian basin had become a new centre in the Celtic world.